I recently set a client and amended version of this workout ( we were in a commercial gym so no chance of a wall ball, and I hadn’t taught him push press and sumo deadlift so i switched a few moves around. Never the less here is some of the science, theory behind the Crossfit workout “Fight Gone bad”
The ability of Fight Gone Bad to predict performance in a 500m Shield Run by Male Crossfitters and members of the Metropolitan Polices Territorial Support Group.
By Andrew Stemler ( taken form a submission to The University of East London: scored at 75%)
This paper seeks to ascertain whether the fitness test, and by implication the training methods, proposed by the controversial Crossfit movement (Cooperman, 2005) called Fight Gone Bad (FGB) could be deployed by 1st responders (police, military paramedics, aid workers etc) as a predictor of performance in a high intensity occupational task, a shield run,
A Shield Run is a 500 meter run for time in full Metropolitan Police Riot Gear, including Riot shield armour and helmet: a total load of approximately 11 kilos. It is one of the qualifying tests to enter The Metropolitan Polices Territorial Support Group (Metropolitan Police, 2009) The ability of FGB to predict performance in the shield run will be correlated with the results of two (field) fitness tests, Vertical Height Jump (Sayers, 1999) and the Rockport V02 max tests (Kilne,1987) which are accepted measures of power and aerobic capacity.( Sinett & Berg, 2001)
Military forces throughout the world debate the need for training regimes that focus on high intensity exercise, power production and weight manipulation. Testers struggle to deliver fair but occupationally relevant physical tests (Vanderburgh, 2000). According to Greg Glassman (2002), the founder of the internet Crossfit movement, the general preparation of everyone, but especially 1st responders, should consist of varied but functional movements trained at high intensity. In the context of this system, functional tends to mean compound exercises such as squats, deadlifts and presses. These should be combined with basic gymnastics (dips/pull ups, bodyweight exercises) and short bouts of running and rowing
. The aim of Crossfit has been stated to be to substitute work capacity as the fitness gold standard in favour of correlates such as V02 max, lactate threshold and heart rate. To date no formal study has been undertaken on any of the CrossFit suggestions.
The Crossfit proposed test called Fight Gone Bad (FGB)(Glassman, 2005) consists of 3 rounds of five exercise stations with 1 minute rest between rounds. Each subject spends one minute at each station then moves immediately to the next exercise, which are Wall-ball: a 10kg pound ball medicine ball thrown at a 10 ft target after a deep squat, Sumo Deadlift high-pull: 34kg , Box Jump: 20″ box Push-press: 34kg: Row. Scoring is by counting repetitions, except for the row which is scored in calories. The repetitions achieved on each station are recorded. The results are added for a score.
The fitness training of Military and 1st responders, especially in Basic Training regimes, has been dominated by the long slow distance aerobic model. Santtila (2008) noted that the low intensity of Basic Training only raised the fitness level of the unfit whilst Dyrstad (2006) also found little improvement in V02 max of trainees and detraining in initially fit candidates due to the lack of high intensity aerobic training. However, Sekulic, et al., (2006) argues that the (US) Army Physical fitness test is both excessively demanding and time consuming.
Increasingly research is suggesting that high intensity training can be as, if not more, effective than classical aerobic training (Babraj,et al.,2009). Similarly, the issue of the fitness of first responders in dealing with fatigue is being increasingly considered (Rhyan, 2006). Rhyan (2006), argues for the inclusion of high intensity training in preparing for a fire fighter ability test (PAT) but insists that adequate rest periods are incorporated within training (the average work/rest set being 1:2 occasionally 1:1.)
According to Crossfit, real life crisis rarely offer structured rest periods or consistent repetitions (Glassman, 2002): However, fitness skills are rarely trained in a fatigued environment. Perhaps this is due to the enduring belief that aerobic exercise is superior to anaerobic exercise and that anaerobic exercise, and lactate tolerance training, is harmful to deploy (Christensen, 1962). Folland, et al., (2002) for example indicates that the discomfort of fatiguing, or ischemic training is not critical for strength gain, yet 1st responders often need to apply force in an environment of fatigue.
These old views are being increasingly challenged. Babraj, et al., (2009) established that short duration high intensity training improved the insulin response in sedentary males, countering the idea that only higher calibre athletes tolerate intensive exercise better (Fry, et al.,1994). Babraj, et al., (2009) also suggests that the training volume to intensity relationship is far from agreed. Ross & Leveritt (2001) observed the metabolic adaptations to high intensity/anaerobic exercise increase the activity of enzymes, increase the amount of substrate stored and the ability to combat, and tolerate the accumulation of metabolites associated with, fatigue. Sharpe, et al., (1986) noted that buffer capacity increased with highly intense sprint training, but no such buffer was development by (aerobic) endurance training.
t seems quite possible to have a good VO2 max, developed by the accepted aerobic prescription, but be unable to cope with load or intensity (McGill, 2006).
It could be anticipated that a good FGB score would indicate a good aerobic capacity. Minetti, et al., (2006) attributed the enhanced metabolic power of Himalayan porters to practising balancing loads above the hip. Legg (1992) suggested the relative oxygen cost of back packing was 4% lower than shoulder load carriage, indicating that the higher the load the more metabolically effective it is. However it is equally possible that a good FGB score, could simply mean that the participants leg muscles shorten more slowly as reducing velocity could allow a muscle to produce more force which would counterbalance possible energy expenditure due to increased muscle fibre recruitment (Minetti, et al., 2006, Legg, 1992) Also possible is the external load actively stretching the muscles during the unloading phase (McGowan, et al., 2006). It could be possible to move load without a high VO2 max by a simple change in kinematics involving better co ordination, agility, motivation and ability to deal with fatigue. This could render the use of VO2 max useless in predicting success at complex body weighted moves This puts in doubt the calls to improve the fitness of military recruits by (merely) increasing aerobic training and fitness as promoted by Blacker, et al., (2008) and Gardner (2002). On the other hand the introduction of Strength training must not be allowed to disintegrate into Bench Pressing competitions (Kraemer, 2004)
The need to move operational equipment is a fundamental 1st responder requirement. Vanderburgh (2000) observes the need to lift weight to 152cm (height of a standard military 2 ton truck). Crowder, et al., (2007) discuses various military opinions as to the amount of weight that can be carried into combat which range from 21-69.5kg . Most service people now use personal body armour. It would seem advisable to test the ability of candidates to manipulate weight. The use of absolute weight also establishes occupational relevance (Vanderburgh, 2000) At the same time, test need to be fair. Vanderburgh (2000) stated that heavier candidates are discriminated against in run tests. Vanderburgh (2000) evaluated a backpack run test (BRT), concluding that carrying 20kg eliminated the weight bias of tests, although the possible range was between 20kg to 50kg.. The FGB weight of 34 kilos seems fairly in the middle of this range. The attempt to produce a candidate leveling calculation was continued by Crowder, et al., in 2007. However the study by Bishop, et al., (2008) established that overall fitness, motor fitness, technique and motivation were the influential factors in completing an indoor obstacle test, rather than body weight levels. However, within military populations most body weights tended to be between 77-85kg with SD of 2.5 (Bishop, et al,. 2008).
FGB, according to Vanderburghs (2000) BRT analysis, eliminates any potential body weight penalty, assesses a component of occupational fitness, (carrying a universal load) and could produce a superior test of aerobic power. The exercises in FGB focus on rapid, force generating, hip extension. These are seen as essential power generating moves for athletic performance (Baechle & Earle, 2008) .The use of vertical height jump test, plyometric and Olympic weightlifting drills are frequently deployed in sports training (Chu, 1996). Whilst the power calculation of f x d/t leaves little room for misunderstanding, in sports training terms, it is normally viewed as a single explosion (Garhammer, 1993) Those athletes, for example, who are encouraged to take up the Olympic lifts normally, focus on low Repetition and high weight (in pursuit of thats sports objectives) rather than multiple repetitions as suggested by Garhammer (1993). Hedrick (2008) emphasizes the link between weightlifters and vertical jump performance as single maximal efforts.
Uniquely among fitness tests, FGB requires the repeated hip extension under fatiguing conditions which, arguably, is more occupationally relevant than the best of three maximal jumps. Ultimately testing in the forces must discriminate between those who can or cannot manoeuvre themselves and equipment in challenging situations (Bishop, et al., 2008). Whilst Heywood (1991) and Vanderburgh (2000) suggest the fundamental requirements of standard tests is to collect information to establish baselines and identify strengths and weaknesses. However, their assertions that tests must extract one recognised fitness component at a time, has done much to retard training and testing in the military. Tests that isolate components are effectively useless and misdirecting (McGill, 2006) A fast run time could, for example, be the results of a high V02max, running economy, a high lactate threshold, fibre type and training (Jones, 1998).
Vanderburgh (2000) notes that few tests measure components of work related fitness. Occupational fitness requires ability to be able to generate an absolute level of force, frequently repeatedly. FGB, is scored on each activity, and each round unlike an obstacle course (Knapik, 1989), providing trainers with sufficient information to baseline, diagnose problems and construct future training programmes.
Safety in training is a consistent concern . Gardner (2002) identifies the major cause of exercise related deaths in the US military to be related to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, and the failure of screening procedures to exclude those suffering from ACAD. The increasing age of the participants was also flagged . Gardner (2002) suggests that vigorous exercise tests need to be conducted where immediate advanced life support measures are available. But Babraj (2009) shows high intensity can be used with medical populations.
FGB test is physically compact an essential aspect for ship board crew (Sekulic, et al., 2006) and 5 people can be tested every 18 minutes. Initially this seems easier to stage than, say the Indoor Obstacle Course test (DPE 2009) using, as it does, standard equipment that should be found in all athletic gyms.Perhaps the major objection is the complexity of the exercises: but , it is the mastery of these movements that identify effective real life performers
What should the content of 1st responder fitness training be. Rhyan (2006) quickly turns to exercises that replicate the test he expects his participants to take (sledge drags, sandbag hauls), but this relies on advance knowledge. Real life rarely issues an agenda. FGB afford the opportunity of assessing the impact of normal exercise on a functional activity.
To what extent, if at all should, the training of 1st responders be based on sporting protocols, that normally seek to equip people to succeed based on genetic superiority (Smith, 2003) Sporting events are scheduled in advance, where in the run up to competition; load, food and training intensities can be planned and manipulated according to the principles of periodisation (Bompa 1999) Soldiers, police and fire fighters, paramedic and crisis workers do not share this environment and frequently have to deal with unplanned events
The Hypothesis for this experiment is that a FGB score will have a positive correlation with performance in a 500m shield run and be a better indicator of performance than the the Vo2max test and a vertical jump test. The nature of the information collected will mean that relationships can be sought between body weight, height, vertical jump and V02 max and FGB
This study will use 15 volunteer members of the metropolitan polices Territorial Support Group (TSG) as they have high levels of fitness and motivation ( met police 2009 ) and 15 currently training Crossfitters. The subjects will be male subjects to avoid gender based variability in results (Bishop, et al., 2008) and over 21. Testing will take place at a TSG training facility. The volunteers will supply written consent and be health screened, bearing in mind the recommendations of Gardner (2002) Weight and height measurements will be recorded, along with date of birth Over a period of one month, as determined by facility and volunteer availability, the subjects will take part in the following tests:
1) The Rockport Walk Test, using the experimental procedure detailed by Kilne et al., (1987) The subject will be supplied with a standard commercial heart rate monitor sold for home use.
2) The Sergeant Vertical Jump Test, from the squat jump as discussed by Sayers et al, (1999)
3) The volunteers will undergo a standardized tutorial, with a physical practise about FGB at least one week prior to undertaking FGB. They will then undergo FGB under the supervision of a Crossfit level 2 trainer.
4) The participants will be briefed as to the shield run. They will then carry out the shield run using standard body armour, and shield under the supervision of TSG testers There will be a 1st aider in attendance with access to water. The data collected will be entered in an SPSS programme. Statistical analysis will be carried out on SPSS. Correlations will be sought between the results, using Pearson or Spearmans Rho depending on the nature of the datas distribution (Field 2005). As the experiment allows for two groups the data will also be analysed in terms of those with prior shield run experience and those without, by way of an independent t-test.
Appendix A rockport walk test
vo2 max = 132.853-(0.0769 x weight) -(0.3877 x age) + ( 6.315 x gender) -( 3.2649 x time) – 0.1565 x HR beat PM gender, 1 = male, 0 = female) 1 mile = 1609meters
speed walking, not breaking into jog. Time noted in 10th of minutes ( ie 6.30 = 6.5
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Crossfit Metro suggest the following scaled divisions
- Class A: Standard Men = 75 lb PP and High Pull, 20lb Wall Ball and 20in Box
- Class B: Modified Men/Standard Women = 55 lb PP and High Pull, 14lb Wall Ball and 20in Box
- Class C: Intermediate = 35 lb PP and High Pull, 8lb Wall Ball and 20in Box (step ups are okay)
- Class D: Beginner/Kids = 15lb PP and High Pull, 4lb Wall Ball (can be lowered 2in from standard height) and 10in Box